An ever-evolving understanding of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) pathophysiology necessitates that diagnostic standards also evolve from being observation-based to include quantifiable clinical measurements. The multisystem nature of ASD motivates the use of multivariate methods of statistical analysis over common univariate approaches for discovering clinical biomarkers relevant to this goal. In addition to characterization of important behavioral patterns for improving current diagnostic instruments, multivariate analyses to date have allowed for thorough investigation of neuroimaging-based, genetic, and metabolic abnormalities in individuals with ASD. This review highlights current research using multivariate statistical analyses to quantify the value of these behavioral and physiological markers for ASD diagnosis. A detailed discussion of a blood-based diagnostic test for ASD using specific metabolite concentrations is also provided. The advancement of ASD biomarker research promises to provide earlier and more accurate diagnoses of the disorder.
Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 34: 100803 (2020)