The application of conventional observer designs for high-dimensional systems may not always be practical due to high computational requirements or the resulting observers being too sensitive to measurement noise. In order to address these issues, this paper presents two observer design techniques for state estimation of high-dimensional chemical processes. One technique is used for systems with inputs whereas the other one is specifically geared towards systems that are not excited from the outside. Both of these observers are applicable to linear and with a modification to nonlinear systems.
The main idea behind the presented observer designs is that a reduced-order observer is implemented instead of a conventional state estimator. The motivation is that subspaces, which are close to being unobservable, cannot be correctly reconstructed in a realistic setting due to measurement noise and inaccuracies in the model. The presented approaches make use of this observation and only reconstruct the parts of the system where accurate state estimation is possible. The observer designs are illustrated on a 30-tray distillation column model. Additionally, it has been shown that the location of process measurements has a major effect on the performance of the presented reduced-order observers.
Computers and Chemical Engineering 29, No. 11-12, pp. 2326-2334 (2005)