Reliable continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) enables a variety of advanced technology for treating type 1 diabetes. In addition to artificial pancreas algorithms that use CGM to automate continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), CGM can also inform fault detection algorithms that alert patients to problems in CGM or CSII. Losses in infusion set actuation (LISAs) can adversely affect clinical outcomes, resulting in hyperglycemia due to impaired insulin delivery. Prolonged hyperglycemia may lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious metabolic complication in type 1 diabetes. Therefore, an algorithm for detecting LISAs based on CGM and CSII signals was developed to improve patient safety. The LISA detection algorithm is trained retrospectively on data from 62 infusion set insertions from 20 patients. The algorithm collects glucose and insulin data and computes relevant fault metrics over two different sliding windows; an alarm sounds when these fault metrics are exceeded. With the chosen algorithm parameters, the LISA detection strategy achieved a sensitivity of 71.8% and issued 0.28 false positives per day on the training data. Validation on two independent data sets confirmed that similar performance is seen on data that was not used for training. The algorithm developed is able to effectively alert patients to possible infusion set failures in open-loop with limited evidence of its extension to closed-loop scenarios.
Sensors 17(1), 161 (2017)